mphoto

Ndondomeko ya Mphoto

Kuti timvetse chifukwa chake timayendetsedwa ndi chakudya chokoma, kukhudzidwa mwachikondi, chilakolako chogonana, mowa, heroin, zolaula, chokoleti, njuga, zamasewero kapena zamagulasi, tikufunikira kudziwa za mphoto.

The mphoto ndi imodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kwambiri muubongo. Zimayendetsa machitidwe athu kuzinthu zosangalatsa monga chakudya, kugonana, mowa, ndi zina zotero. Ndipamene timamverera ndikusintha zomwezo kuti tiyambe kapena kuyimitsa zochita. Amakhala ndimagulu amkati mwaubongo. Amayesa kubwereza kapena kusabwereza zomwe amachita ndikukhala ndi chizolowezi. Mphoto ndiyomwe imalimbikitsa chidwi chofuna kusintha machitidwe. Mphoto nthawi zambiri zimakhala zolimbikitsira. Ndiye kuti, amatipangitsa kuti tizibwereza zomwe timawona (mosazindikira) ngati zabwino kuti tikhale ndi moyo, ngakhale atakhala kuti sanatero. Chisangalalo ndi mphotho yabwinoko kapena chilimbikitso kuposa kupweteka kwa zoyeserera. Karoti ndiyabwino kuposa ndodo etc.

The Striatum

Pakatikatikati mwa dongosolo la mphoto ndi striatum. Ndi dera laubongo lomwe limapereka malingaliro a mphotho kapena chisangalalo. Pogwira ntchito, striatum imagwirizanitsa magawo angapo amalingaliro omwe amatithandiza kupanga chisankho. Izi zikuphatikiza kuyenda ndi kukonzekera kuchitapo kanthu, chilimbikitso, kulimbitsa, komanso kuzindikira mphotho. Ndipamene ubongo umayeza kulemera kwa nanosecond, kutumiza 'pitani' kapena 'kukhala kutali'. Gawo ili laubongo limasintha kwambiri chifukwa chazomwe zimachitika chifukwa chogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo. Zizolowezi zomwe zakhala zozama kwambiri ndi mtundu wina wamaphunziro a 'pathological', omwe ndiophunzitsika.

Iyi ndi nkhani yochepa ya TED pa mutu wa Msampha Wokondweretsa.

Udindo wa Dopamine

Kodi ntchito ya dopamine ndi yotani? Dopamine ndi mankhwala amitsempha omwe amachititsa zochitika muubongo. Ndi zomwe dongosolo la mphotho limagwira. Ili ndi ntchito zosiyanasiyana. Dopamine ndi 'go-get-it' yamankhwala am'magazi omwe amatipangitsa kuti tikhale ndi chidwi kapena mphotho ndi machitidwe omwe timafunikira kuti tikhale ndi moyo. Zitsanzo ndi chakudya, kugonana, kulumikizana, kupewa kupweteka ndi zina zotero. Ndi chizindikiritso chomwe chimatipangitsa kusuntha. Mwachitsanzo, anthu omwe ali ndi Matenda a Parkinson samatha kupanga dopamine yokwanira. Izi zikuwoneka ngati mayendedwe osakhazikika. Kutulutsa mobwerezabwereza kwa dopamine 'kulimbitsa' njira za neural kutipangitsa ife kufuna kubwereza machitidwe. Ndichofunikira kwambiri pakuphunzira chilichonse.

Zimasamalidwa bwino muubongo. Chiphunzitso chachikulu chokhudza udindo wa dopamine ndi chilimbikitso chiphunzitso. Ndizokhudza kufuna, osati kukonda. Kumverera kwachisangalalo komwe kumachokera ku ma opioid achilengedwe muubongo omwe amabweretsa chisangalalo kapena chokwera. Dopamine ndi opioid amagwira ntchito limodzi. Anthu omwe ali ndi schizophrenia amakonda kukhala ndi dopamine yochulukirapo ndipo izi zimatha kubweretsa mphepo zamkuntho komanso kukhumudwa kwambiri. Ganizirani Goldilocks. Kusamala. Kudya kwambiri, mowa, mankhwala osokoneza bongo, zolaula ndi zina kumalimbitsa njirazi ndipo kumatha kuyambitsa chizolowezi mwa ena.

Dopamine ndi Chisangalalo

Kuchuluka kwa dopamine kumasulidwa ndi ubongo musanayambe khalidwe ndilopambana ndi kuthekera kwake kokondweretsa. Ngati timasangalala ndi chinthu kapena ntchito, kukumbukira kumatanthawuza kuti tikuyembekezera kuti zidzakhalanso zosangalatsa. Ngati chikoka chikuphwanya chiyembekezo chathu - chimakhala chosangalatsa kapena chosangalatsa - tidzakhala ndi dopamine mochuluka panthawi yomwe tidzakumanako. Mankhwala osokoneza bongo amanyalanyaza malipiro awo ndipo amapanga maulendo apamwamba a dopamine ndi opioids poyamba. Pambuyo pake ubongo umagwiritsidwa ntchito popititsa patsogolo, motero amafunika mphamvu yambiri ya dopamine kuti ikhale yapamwamba. Pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo, wogwiritsa ntchito amafunikira zofanana, koma ndi zolaula monga zolimbikitsa, ubongo umafuna zatsopano, zosiyana ndi zochititsa mantha kapena zodabwitsa kuti zitheke.

Wogwiritsa ntchito nthawi zonse amangothamangitsa zokumbukira komanso zokumana nazo zapamwamba kwambiri, koma nthawi zambiri amakhala wokhumudwitsidwa. Sindingapeze… .kukhutira. Wogwiritsa ntchito nawonso, pakapita kanthawi, 'amafunikira' zolaula kapena mowa kapena ndudu, kuti akhalebe mutu wa zowawa zomwe zimayambitsidwa ndi dopamine wotsika komanso zipsinjo zobwerera m'mbuyo. Chifukwa chake kuzungulirako kowopsa kwa kudalira. Mwa munthu amene amagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo kapena kudalira kwamakhalidwe, 'chilimbikitso' chogwiritsa ntchito, chomwe chimachitika chifukwa cha kusinthasintha kwa milingo ya dopamine, chitha kumverera ngati chosowa cha 'moyo kapena imfa' ndikupangitsa zisankho zoyipa kwambiri kuti athetse ululu.

Gwero Lalikulu la Dopamine

Gwero lalikulu la dopamine m'katikati mwa ubongo (striatum) limapangidwa m'dera la ventral tegmental (VTA). Kenako imapita ku nucleus accumbens (NAcc), malo opezera mphotho, poyankha momwe akuwonera / kuwonera / kuyembekezera mphothoyo, ndikutsitsa chowotchera chokonzekera kuchitapo kanthu. Chotsatira - kuyendetsa galimoto / kuyenda, koyendetsedwa ndi chizindikiro chosangalatsa 'pitani mukachipeze,' kapena chizindikiro choletsa, monga 'kuima', chidzatsimikiziridwa ndi chizindikiritso chochokera ku preortal cortex mukamaliza kufotokozera. Kuchuluka kwa dopamine komwe kulipo mu mphotho ya mphotho, komwe kumalimbikitsidwa kumawoneka ngati mphotho. Anthu omwe ali ndi vuto losalamulirika, kapena zizolowezi zina, amatulutsa chizindikiritso chofooka kwambiri kuchokera ku preortal cortex kuti aletse chikhumbo kapena kuchitapo kanthu mwachangu.

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