Maselo ammitsempha omwe amawotcha pamodzi waya limodzi

Neuroplasticity

Mawu akuti neuroplasticity amatha ngati neuro chifukwa cha "neuron", maselo a mitsempha mu ubongo wathu ndi zamanjenje. pulasitiki ndi "wosinthika, wosinthika, wosinthika." Neuroplasticity amatanthauza kuthekera kwaubongo kusintha chifukwa cha zomwe zamuchitikira. Ubongo umachita izi polimbitsa kulumikizana kwa maselo amitsempha kwinaku ukufooketsa kulumikizana pakati pa ena. Umu ndi momwe ubongo umasungira zokumbukira, kuphunzira, kusaphunzira ndikusintha kusintha kwachilengedwe. Mfundo ziwiri zimayang'anira pulasitiki wamaubongo:

choyamba, 'maselo amitsempha oyaka pamodzi waya' zikutanthauza kuti zochitika ziwiri zitha kulumikizidwa mwamphamvu ngati zingachitike nthawi yomweyo. Mwachitsanzo, mwana wakhanda akugwira chitofu chotentha kwa nthawi yoyamba amayambitsa maselo amitsempha onse omwe amasintha zowoneka pamwamba ndi maselo amanjenje omwe akumva kupweteka. Zochitika ziwirizi zomwe sizinalumikizidwe zimalumikizidwa kwathunthu muubongo kudzera munthambo yama cell amitsempha. Kuwona zithunzi zolimbikitsa kugonana kwa nthawi yoyamba kumapangitsa kuti mwana azikumbukira nthawi yayitali ndikuyamba kumuumba.

Chachiwiri, 'gwiritsani ntchito kapena muchepetse' Ndizofunikira kwambiri pazenera zina zachitukuko. Ndi chifukwa chake ndizosavuta kuphunzira maluso kapena machitidwe ena pazaka zina. Sitikuwona ochita masewera olimbitsa thupi a Olimpiki kuyambira ali ndi zaka 12 kapena oimba nyimbo za konsati kuyambira ali ndi zaka 25. Mosiyana ndi mwana wakhanda, wachinyamata wowonera zolaula amalumikiza zinthu zakunja ndi gawo lake lobadwa kuti azisangalala ndi zachiwerewere. Achinyamata ndi nthawi yophunzira za kugonana. Maselo amitsempha okhudzidwa pakusaka intaneti ndikudina kuchokera kuwonekera mpaka kuwotcha moto limodzi ndi omwe amakhala ndi chisangalalo chogonana komanso chisangalalo. Ziwalo zake zam'mimba zimangogwira ntchito yake: kukhudza chitofu = kupweteka; malo owonera zolaula = zosangalatsa. Kuleka zochitika kumathandizira kufooketsa mayanjano.

Neurons

Ubongo wathu ndi gawo limodzi lamanjenje. Amakhala ndi chapakati mantha dongosolo (CNS) ndi zotumphukira mantha dongosolo (PNS). CNS imakhala ndi ubongo ndi msana. Ndiwo malo olamulira omwe amalandila chidziwitso chonse kuchokera mthupi lonse kuti atha kusankha mayankho oyenera, kuchoka kapena 'momwe muliri'. Ponena za mayankho ena ake amatumiza zikwangwani kudzera pa PNS. Chifukwa chake chithunzi cholakwika, kununkhiza, kukhudza, kulawa kapena kuyanjana ndi mawu kumawotcha njira zodzutsa chilakolako chogonana kuchokera muubongo kupita kumaliseche kudzera munthawi yamphindi pakamphindi.

Ubongo uli ndimaselo ozungulira 86 biliyoni kapena ma neuron. Selo la neuron kapena mitsempha limakhala ndi thupi lomwe limakhala ndi phata lokhala ndi zinthu za DNA. Chofunika kwambiri, ilinso ndi mapuloteni omwe amasintha mawonekedwe chifukwa chololera kulumikizana ndi chidziwitso kuchokera kwina kulikonse.

Neurons amasiyana ndi maselo ena m'thupi chifukwa:

1. Neurons ali ndi maselo apadera omwe amatchedwa azimayi ndi axons. Osowa amabweretsa zizindikiro zamagetsi ku thupi la maselo ndi ma axon amatenga uthenga kunja kwa thupi.
2. Neurons amalankhulana wina ndi mzake kudzera mu njira ya electrochemical.
3. Ma Neurons ali ndi zipangizo zina (mwachitsanzo, synapses) ndi mankhwala (mwachitsanzo, azing'onoting'ono). Onani pansipa.

Neurons ndi maselo amithenga mu dongosolo lamanjenje. Ntchito yawo ndikutumiza mauthenga kuchokera kumbali imodzi ya thupi kupita kwa wina. Iwo amapanga pafupifupi 50% ya maselo mu ubongo. Zina pafupifupi 50% ndi maselo amodzi. Awa ndi maselo osakhala ndi neuronal omwe amakhala ndi homeostasis, amapanga myelin, ndipo amapereka chithandizo ndi chitetezo cha neurons m'katikati mwa mitsempha ya mitsempha ndi pulogalamu ya mitsempha yowopsa. Maselo ofiira amachititsa kusamalira monga kuyeretsa maselo akufa ndi kukonzanso ena.

The neurons amapanga zomwe timaganiza ngati 'imvi nkhani'. Pamene axon, yomwe ikhoza kukhala yayitali kapena yayitali, imayikidwa ndi mafuta oyera (myelin), izi zimalola kuti zizindikirozo zizidutsa mofulumira kwambiri. Kuvala koyera kapena kusungunula, ndikomene kumatchedwa 'nkhani yoyera'. Olemba malonda omwe amalandira chidziwitso samapezedwa. Ubongo wa achinyamata umaphatikizanso ubongo ndi njira. Zimathandizanso kuti mgwirizanowu ukhale wogwirizana.

Zizindikiro zamagetsi ndi zamagetsi

Neurons yathu imanyamula mauthenga monga mawonekedwe a magetsi omwe amatchedwa maganizo a mitsempha kapena zomwe zingatheke kuchita. Kuti tipeze mitsempha ya mitsempha, ma neurons athu ayenera kukhala okondwa mokwanira, chifukwa cha lingaliro kapena chodziwitso, kutumiza mawotchi omwe akuwombera kutalika kwa selo kuti akondweretse kapena ateteze otsegula mapuloteni kumapeto kwa axon. Mapulogalamu monga kuwala, mafano, phokoso kapena kupanikizika zonse zimapangitsa kuti tizisangalala kwambiri. [/ X_text] [/ x_column] [/ x_row]

Chidziwitso chitha kuyenda kuchokera ku neuron kupita ku chipanichi china pamtundu umodzi. Neurons samakhudza kwenikweni, a kusinthasintha ndi kusiyana kochepa kusiyanitsa neuroni. Zosakaniza zilizonse pakati pa 1,000 ndi 10,000 zolumikizana kapena 'synapses' ndi ma neuroni ena. Chikumbutso chidzapangidwa ndi kusanganikirana kwa neuroni kutulutsa kununkhiza, kupenya, kumveka ndi kukhudza kuwombera pamodzi.

Zovuta zam'mimba kapena zochita zikadutsa ndikufika kumapeto kwa axon kumapeto kwake, zimayambitsa njira zosiyanasiyana. Pachipatala pali timatumba ting'onoting'ono tomwe timadzazidwa ndimankhwala amitsempha osiyanasiyana omwe amayambitsa mayankho osiyanasiyana. Zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana zimayambitsa ma vesicles okhala ndi ma neurotransmitter osiyanasiyana. Zovala izi zimasunthira kumapeto kwenikweni kwa terminal ndikutulutsa zomwe zili mu synapse. Imayenda kuchoka mu neuron iyi kudutsa mphambano kapena synapse ndipo imakondweretsa kapena kuletsa neuron yotsatira.

Ngati pali kuchepa mwina kuchuluka kwa ma neurochemical (mwachitsanzo dopamine) kapena kuchuluka kwa zolandilira, uthengawu umakhala wovuta kupitilira. Anthu omwe ali ndi Matenda a Parkinson ali ndi vuto lowonetsa dopamine. Magulu apamwamba am'magazi kapena ma receptors amatanthauzira kukhala uthenga wamphamvu kapena kukumbukira. Wogwiritsa ntchito zolaula akamakonda zinthu zolimbikitsa kwambiri, njirazi zimayamba kugwira ntchito ndikulimba. Mphamvu yamagetsi imadutsa mosavuta. Munthu akasiya chizolowezi, zimafunika khama kuti apewe njirayi yosavuta komanso yosavuta.

Neuromodulation ndi zamoyo ndondomeko yomwe anapatsidwa minyewa amagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala amodzi kapena angapo kuti athetse mitundu yambiri ya neuroni. Izi ndi zosiyana ndi zachikale kusinthasintha kwachimake, imene presynaptic neuron imakhudza mwachindunji mnzanu mmodzi, wosatumiza uthenga. Nyuomodulators yomwe imayikidwa ndi gulu laling'ono la neuroni imafalikira kudzera m'madera akulu a dongosolo la manjenje, lomwe limakhudza ma neuroni ambiri. Makina akuluakulu amtundu wa pakati pa mitsempha yambiri amaphatikizapo dopamineSerotoninacetylcholinehistaminendipo norepinephrine / noradrenaline.

Neuromodulation ingaganizedwe ngati chithandizo cha ubongo chomwe sichibwezeretsedwanso ndi pre-synaptic neuron kapena chosweka mu metabolite. Anthu oterewa amatha kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi yochuluka cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), yosonkhezera (kapena "kusinthasintha") zochitika za ma neuron ena angapo mu ubongo. Pachifukwa ichi, ena amadzimadzi amadzimadzi amatchedwa serotonin ndi acetylcholine. (onani wikipedia)

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