Kusinthika kwa ubongo

Kusinthika kwa ubongo

Onani maminiti awa a 5 kanema kuti muwone mwachidule magawo ndi magwiridwe antchito aubongo.

Chimodzi mwazinthu zodziwika bwino kwambiri zomvetsetsa kapangidwe kaubongo ndikukula kwakusintha kwa mtundu wamaubongo. Izi zidapangidwa ndi wasayansi ya sayansi Paul MacLean ndipo adakhala wamphamvu kwambiri m'ma 1960. Kwa zaka zambiri kuchokera pano, komabe, zinthu zingapo zamtunduwu zakhala zikuyenera kukonzedwanso potengera maphunziro aposachedwa a neuroanatomical. Ndizofunikirabe kumvetsetsa magwiridwe antchito aubongo nthawi zonse. Mtundu woyambirira wa MacLean udasiyanitsa maubongo atatu osiyanasiyana omwe adawonekera motsatizana pakusintha:

Ubongo wa Reptilian

Ichi ndi mbali yakale kwambiri ya ubongo. Zinayambira pafupifupi zaka 400 zapitazo. Zimapangidwa ndi zikuluzikulu zomwe zimapezeka mu ubongo wa reptile: ubongo umayambira ndi cerebellum. Lili mkatikati mwa mutu wathu ndipo limagwirizana pamwamba pa msana wathu. Imayendetsa ntchito zathu zofunika kwambiri monga kuthamanga kwa mtima, kutentha kwa thupi, kuthamanga kwa magazi, kupuma komanso kulingalira. Zimathandizanso kuthandizana ndi "ubongo" wina m'mutu mwathu. Ubongo wodalitsika ndi wodalirika koma umakhala wovuta komanso wovuta.

Limbic Ubongo. Amatchedwanso ubongo wa mammalian

Ubongo wa limbic umayendetsa miyendo ya thupi. Zapangika zaka 250 zapitazo ndi kusintha kwa zinyama zoyamba. Ikhoza kukumbukira zochitika zomwe zinapanga zochitika zosangalatsa ndi zosagwirizana, kotero ndizo zomwe zimatchedwa 'maganizo' mwa anthu. Ichi ndi gawo la ubongo kumene timagwera ndi kunja kwa chikondi, ndi chiyanjano ndi ena. Ndilo maziko a zosangalatsa kapena mphoto mwa anthu. Zinyama, kuphatikizapo anthu, zimafunikira kulera ana awo kwa kanthawi asanakonzekere kuchoka 'chinyama' ndi kudzisungira okha. Izi ndi zosiyana ndi ziwombankhanga zazing'ono zomwe zimangotuluka ndi dzira ndikuzizira.

Ubongo wa limbic ndi malo a zikhulupiliro ndi ziganizo zamtengo wapatali zomwe timakhala nazo, zomwe nthawi zambiri sitidziwa, zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri khalidwe lathu.

Amygdala

Chiwalo cha ziwalo chili ndi zigawo zisanu ndi chimodzi - thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens ndi VTA. Nazi zomwe akuchita.

The thalamus ndiye wogwiritsira ntchito ubongo wathu. Chidziwitso chilichonse chokhudzidwa (kupatula fungo) chomwe chimalowa mthupi lathu chimapita ku thalamus yathu yoyamba ndipo thalamus imatumiza uthenga kumbali yolondola ya ubongo kuti ikwaniritsidwe.

The hypothalamus ndi kukula kwa nyemba za khofi koma mwina ndilofunikira kwambiri mu ubongo wathu. Zimaphatikizapo kuthetsa ludzu; njala; maganizo, kutentha kwa thupi; kukondana, kugonana (kugona) ndi kayendedwe kabwino ka mitsempha ndi endocrine (hormone) system. Kuphatikiza apo, imayendetsa chingwe cha pituitary.

The pituitary Kawirikawiri amatchedwa 'master gland', chifukwa imatulutsa mahomoni omwe amachititsa mazinyala ambirimbiri omwe amachititsa kuti thupi lawo likhale lopweteka. Zimapangitsa kukula kwa hormone, mahomoni otha msinkhu, chithokomiro chomwe chimayambitsa hormone, prolactin ndi Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH, yomwe imachititsa kuti mavitamini a adrenal stress, cortisol) asinthe. Zimapangitsanso kuti hormone yamadzimadzi imatchedwa anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).

The amygdala imagwiritsa ntchito kukumbukira kukumbukira, koma mbali zambiri zimagwira zowawa monga mkwiyo, mkwiyo ndi nsanje.

The hippocampus ikuphatikizidwa mu processing processing. Mbali iyi ya ubongo ndi yofunika pophunzira ndi kukumbukira, potembenuza kukumbukira kwafupikitsa ku kukumbukira kwamuyaya, ndi kukumbukira maubwenzi apakati padziko lapansi pathu.

The Nucleus Accumbens amasewera gawo lalikulu mu dera la mphoto. Ntchito yake imayang'aniridwa makamaka pazigawo ziwiri zofunika kwambiri za ubongo: dopamine zomwe zimalimbikitsa chilakolako, ndi serotonin zomwe zotsatira zake zimaphatikizapo kugonana ndi kulepheretsa. Kafukufuku wambiri wa zinyama asonyeza mankhwala osokoneza bongo nthawi zambiri amachititsa kuti dopamine ikhale yopangidwa mu nucleus accumbens, pomwe ikuchepetsa Serotonin. Koma nucleus accumbens sichigwira ntchito padera. Icho chimaphatikiza maubwenzi oyandikana ndi malo ena omwe akukhudzidwa mu njira za zosangalatsa, ndipo makamaka, ndi malo amtunda, amatchedwanso VTA.
Mukatikati mwa ubongo, pamwamba pa ubongo, VTA ndi mbali imodzi ya ubongo. Ndizosauroni za VTA zomwe zimapanga dopamine, zomwe zida zawo zimatumiza ku nucleus accumbens. VTA imakhudzidwanso ndi endorphins omwe mapuloteni awo amalimbidwa ndi mankhwala opiana monga heroin ndi morphine.

Neocortex / cerebral cortex. Amatchedwanso Neomammalian Brain

Ichi chinali chaposachedwapa 'ubongo' kutembenuka. Chikopa cha m'mimba chimagawidwa m'madera omwe amayang'anira ntchito zinazake. Mbali zosiyana zimagwiritsa ntchito malingaliro kuchokera m'maganizo athu, kutithandiza kuti tiwone, kumverera, kumva, ndi kulawa. Mbali ya kutsogolo kwa kanyumba, kanyumba ka kutsogolo kapena forebrain, ndilo lingaliro loganiza za ubongo; zimathandiza kuti tiganizire, kukonzekera, kuthetsa mavuto, kudziletsa komanso kusankha zochita.

Neocortex yoyamba inali yofunika kwambiri pamasamba ndipo inatha mu ubongo wa munthu ndi zikuluzikulu zake ziwiri ziwalo za ubongo zomwe zimagwira ntchito yaikulu kwambiri. Zithunzi zimenezi zakhala zikuyambitsa chilankhulo cha anthu (c 15,000-70,000 zaka zapitazo), maganizo osaganizira, malingaliro ndi chidziwitso. Neocortex imatha kusintha ndipo ili ndi mphamvu zophunzira zopanda malire. Neocortex ndi yomwe inalola kuti chikhalidwe cha anthu chikhalepo.

Gawo laposachedwapa la neocortex kuti likhalepo ndilo prefrontal cortex zomwe zinayamba pafupifupi zaka 500,000 zapitazo. Nthawi zambiri amatchedwa ubongo wamkulu. Izi zimatipatsa njira zodziletsa, kukonzekera, kuzindikira, kulingalira bwino, kuzindikira, ndi chinenero. Ikugwirizananso ndi tsogolo labwino, lingaliro lamaganizo ndi logwirizana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Ndiwo 'maganizo' a ubongo wakale wamtunduwu ndipo amatilola kuti tilephere kapena kuika mabelekedwe pamakhalidwe osayenerera. Mbali yatsopanoyi ya ubongo ndi gawo lomwe likumangidwanso paunyamata.

Ubongo Wophatikiza

Mbali zitatuzi za ubongo, Reptilian, Limbic ndi Neocortex, sizigwira ntchito mosiyana. Akhazikitsa mgwirizano wambiri womwe umakhudza wina. Mphepete mwa neural njira yochokera ku limbic system kupita ku kortex, amakula bwino kwambiri.

Maganizo ndi amphamvu kwambiri ndipo amatithamangitsa kuchoka kumalo osadziwika. Maganizo ndi chinachake chimene chimatichitikira kwambiri kuposa chinachake chimene timaganiza kuti chichitike. Zambiri za kufotokozera kusadziletsa kwa maganizo athu ndizo momwe ubongo wa munthu umagwirizanirana.

Ubongo wathu zasintha mwakuti iwo ali ndi mgwirizano wochuluka wothamanga kuchokera ku machitidwe okhudza maganizo kupita ku cortex (locus of controlling control) kuposa njira ina. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, phokoso la magalimoto onse othamanga pamsewu waukulu wothamanga wothamanga kuchokera ku limbic system kupita ku cortex ikhoza kutulutsa phokoso lokhazikika pamsewu waung'ono womwe ukuyenda mozungulira.

Ubongo umasintha chifukwa cha kuledzeretsa kuphatikizapo kufotokoza kwa imvi (maselo a mitsempha) m'malo okonzeka kumalo otchedwa 'chinyengo'. Izi zimachepetsa zizindikiro zolepheretsa kubwerera ku ubongo kuti zikhale zosatheka kupeŵa kuchita zomwe tsopano zakhala zopanda pake komanso zopanikizika.

Kuphunzira momwe tingalimbikitsire chigoba chapamwamba, ndipo ndi kudziletsa kwathu, ndi luso lapadera la moyo komanso maziko a moyo wabwino. Maganizo osazolowereka kapena ubongo wosagwirizana ndi kuledzera akhoza kupindula pang'ono.

Kutsegula m'mimba >>

Sangalalani, PDF ndi Imelo